Non-Destructive Examination for PWRs and BWRs
Steam Generator Inspection
It's More Than a Robot Show
Don't Let Technology Leave You Behind
When today’s utilities seek Steam Generator Services (SGS), they want to find the right combination of people, performance, technology and price — NOT just another vendor. That’s why AREVA’s mission is to bring innovation and flexibility to the forefront of every aspect of your outage. You get much more than just a robot show. AREVA invests where it matters most to deliver the latest technology — on time, on budget, and by a team of experts that you can trust. New NDE technology enhances safety, quality, performance and delivery through:
• Reduced dose
• Improved human performance
• Cost and schedule certainty
You Get the Whole Package
Advancing ECT Inspection, Analysis and Remediation Technology — just a few examples of how AREVA’s mission keeps you from being left behind.
AIDA3 Fully Automated Data Analysis Software
Multiple, independent detection algorithms offering improved performance at a reduced price.
AREVA’s Auto Analysis Software (AIDA3) uses independent algorithms to perform parallel analyses with all probe types. The result? Extremely accurate analysis — faster and with fewer analysts.
• No investment required since AIDA is already EPRI AAPDD qualified for bobbin, array and MRPC
• Proven with more than 90 deployments in the U.S. alone
• Capable of any manual or automated analysis scenario, providing flexibility
• Multitude of parallel analyses providing timely information to make informed decisions
- Flaw / non-flaw
- Structure mapping
- Historical data comparison
• Independent detection algorithms for all probe types
• Independent tube verification using ET signatures to ensure the quality of the examination
• Automated incremental sizing (line-by-line) reducing the need for analysts
• Faster analysis with far fewer analysts
• Extremely accurate and lowest false call rate to expedite the analysis process
AREVA’s Data Acquisition Innovation (ARIA)
Variable speed control to increase probe life.
AREVA’s Data Acquisition Innovation (ARIA) lets you focus on continuous operation without human interaction
• Highly advanced compared to similar technology
• Fully automated acquisition with all probe types
• Supports multiple instruments and tool heads
• Inspection plan management optimizes schedule
• Real-time data quality decision and automatic retest
• Systematic link with Auto Analysis Software (AIDA3) to trigger analysis
• Eliminates calibration groups for continuous operation
- Process adaptations maintain accurate calibration over probe’s life and monitor noise level changes
• Unique probe management features improve data quality and extend probe life
- Dynamic sampling to manage speed in critical areas of the tube
- Exact control of probe start/stop position
- Improved centering and cupping
- Tube-by-tube landmark references
AREVA’s Triple Guide Tube
Increased production without increasing crew size.
Using the AREVA Triple Guide Tube tool, you can inspect your entire steam generator with one set of probes — for substantial savings on schedule and dose and improved safety and human performance.
• Three probes delivered from each manipulator
• Fully-automated operation in any combination of single, dual or triple use scenario
• Inspects the entire steam generator with one set of probes
• Guide pin centering and tube end cupping for longer probe life
• Guide tube calibration standard with each tube for accuracy, data quality monitoring and time savings
• Offers substantial savings on schedule and dose
• Improves safety and human performance
• Increases production rate by up to 30%
SHIVA next-generation tube inspection probe
Higher resolution at a reduced price.
Fully integrated with ARIA and AIDA software, the next-generation tube inspection probe (SHIVA) performs single-pass inspection, and requires no special equipment, standards, or personnel training.
• Fully integrated with Data Acquisition Software (ARIA) and Auto Analysis Software (AIDA3)
• Truly capable of single-pass inspection with dual techniques
• Successfully field-tested with exceptional performance on cracking, volumetric degradation and other potential conditions
• Satisfies inspection needs of bobbin, rotating and array probes in a single scan
• Superior sensitivity, access and reliability compared to other qualified probes
• Probe life targets to eliminate probe changes during an inspection
• No special equipment, standards or personnel training required
Adjustable Length Eddy Current Snorkel (ALECS)
Easy remote conduit adjustments without platform support.
The Adjustable Length Eddy Current Snorkel (ALECS) tool allows inspection personnel to make easy adjustments without platform support.
• Remotely operated from outside containment, reducing dose
• Designed for all inspection techniques, all probe sizes and the new AREVA Triple Guide Tube, eliminating time-consuming equipment positioning
• Eliminates need for personnel on the platform adding / removing sections of ET conduit, saving dose
• Able to extend / retract up to 48"
System Controls Embedded in Plugging Tool for Enhanced Repairs (SCEPTER)
Simplified performance for plugging and stabilization.
AREVA’s System Controls Embedded in Plugging Tool for Enhanced Repairs (SCEPTER) performs plugging and stabilization with one tool-head for reduced schedule and dose.
• One-visit plugging/stabilization to expedite the process
- Insert plug/stabilizer through the pop-up guide tube and rotate expander into play
- Install 10 to 15 plugs per hour
• Machine vision verification to ensure accuracy
• Enhanced software control for efficient operation
• Portable integral air system to minimize impact on station resources
Enhanced NEZ Ranger
The most capable manipulator available.
The Non-Exclusion Zone (NEZ) RANGER combines the speed of a long-reach manipulator arm with the flexibility of a tube walker — and it installs in just 5 minutes!
• Combines the speed of a long-reach manipulator arm with the flexibility of a tube walker
• Robust design to perform all examination and repairs
- Plugging / stabilization
- Tube pull
- Weld Repair
• Installs in just five minutes
• Meets all industry standards for safety
• Meets all performance expectations for dose and schedule savings
AREVA provides more than the world’s most efficient robots: The latest software; the most advanced probes, continuously improved through substantial R&D; superior data collection, and reliable data interpretation by highly qualified experts. It’s all-encompassing attention you can count on.
AVB Gap Measurement
Understand the Condition of Your SG Support Structures with a New Approach to SG Tube Inspection
The combination of steam and water flow causes Steam Generator (SG) tubes to vibrate. Anti-vibration bars (AVBs) are designed to limit the vibrating motion. Larger-than-designed distance between the AVBs and tube OD (or Gap) can lead to excessive vibration and unwanted wear at the AVB location, and potentially wear from tube-to-tube contact — ultimately causing tube leaks.
That’s why AREVA recently developed two innovative NDE techniques for measuring both tube-to-tube and tube-to-anti-vibration bar gaps. The first technique uses a rotating ET probe that senses the proximity of adjacent AVB metal from changes in the electro-magnetic field. A second technique uses a UT transducer that can be rotated within the U-bend region to measure gaps based on ultrasonic pulse reflections received from the AVB. AREVA can now combine these two approaches to achieve accuracy better than +/- 1 millimeter. Plus, each measurement takes only minutes.
• Enhanced accuracy
• Save time — only takes minutes per measurement
• Reliable results through cross-correlation
• Inspect early and avoid unnecessary downtime
Reactor Vessel Inspection
Reducing the hassles of reactor vessel examinations
This new manipulator can support full 10-year, intermediate and follow-up surveillance inspections with minimal disruption of outage activity. Because of its technical innovation, plant operators no longer have to endure many of the hassles previously associated with in-service inspections. It’s the Trans-World System (TWS) remotely operated manipulator. It reduces vessel occupation time (VOT) and minimizes site resource requirements for ultrasonic examinations of reactor vessels.
Trans-World System (TWS) World Record RPV 10 yr ISI Exam — 2.92 days for CE plant
Reactor Vessel Head Inspection
RVCH CRDM Nozzle Inspections
- Industry best blade probe performance and dual blade probe capability
- Qualified both Rotating and Blade probes to new PDI requirements
- Significant dose reduction due to remote installation, removal and operation
PWR Internals Inspection
Reliability & Predictability for PWR Internals
You can be confident in having a partner to help you respond to emergent challenges for Non-Destructive Examination (NDE) of internals. When utilities seek a major supplier to the U.S. market, they are turning to AREVA. Because here, NDE doesn’t just mean Non-Destructive Examination. It means No Delays or Excuses. Only AREVA has the deep global bench strength necessary to immediately respond to your emergent issues. But equally important, AREVA has a proven track record of adapting to schedule variations and minimizing outage impact. With AREVA’s established, worldwide suppliers and vendors to fabricate code hardware, additional tools and software, you can achieve predictable outages for all aspects of your NDE for internals.
Check out the facts and celebrate—this is NDE you can count on:
- Baffle Bolts — SUSI best inspection solution thus far; highly successful in W two-loop plants
- UFIT Tool — Upper Flange Inspection Tool available
- LFWIT — Lower Flange Inspection Tool available
- As a fully integrated supplier, AREVA can help you perform internals inspections simultaneously with disassembly and refueling services to shorten schedule and minimize costs
- AREVA has the tools, experience and capability to handle MRP requirements
- Integrated Solutions for MRP 227 / 228
- Life Extension Requirements
- Engineering disposition and analysis performed for all OEM plants
- SUSI submarine baffle bolt UT
- EDM machining to replace bolts and minimize FME issues
- U.S. Leader for MRP exams
- Mock-up simulations promote reliability and predictability
BWR Cutting-Edge Inspection Systems
HawkEYE IVVI Inspection for BWRs
Better BWR Inspection Coverage. Period.
BWR in-vessel visual inspection (IVVI) requirements challenge utilities, especially in high flow conditions. Plus, as regulators review visual examination methods more closely, EPRI continues evaluating the adequacy of current inspection methods. That’s why AREVA offers the innovative HawkEYE remote mechanized visual inspection system for your BWRs. HawkEYE provides better images and access to more areas for inspection without increasing your outage schedule or personnel exposure.
Since its introduction, HawkEYE has obtained images of BWR equipment previously excluded from inspection. HawkEYE inspects jet pumps, feedwater piping, core-spray piping, and core-spray spargers directly above the fuel. In fact, HawkEYE has increased coverage for Jet Pump exams (DF-1, RS-2) from 30 percent to as much as 75 percent.
Check out the facts and celebrate. This is BWR inspection coverage you can count on:
- Quickly reaches hard-to-inspect areas
- Produces video quality unmatched by manual methods
- Works with or without a work platform
- Is operated remotely to minimize dose
- Enables parallel refuel and vessel maintenance activities
Simple, Robust Telescoping Mast
HawkEYE’s simple, robust telescoping mast delivers a remotely-controlled tool head equipped with a camera. The robust mast reduces flow-induced camera motion for improved image quality, and accesses the annulus area between the shroud and the vessel. It then rotates from the annulus to the core area, and accesses the area above the annulus to perform required inspections.
Operates on Proven Cart/Ring Technology for Convenience
HawkEYE can also operate on the proven cart/ring technology used at various sites, performing shroud inspections that are “transparent” to the refuel floor schedule. Using this system, bridge support is needed only for installation and removal of the ring, cart, and HawkEYE manipulator. The manipulator’s design enables utilities to start inspecting the annulus prior to the shutdown cooling isolation window, providing margin for added work scopes or schedule slippage.
Field-Proven Underwater Technology
HawkEYE’s underwater technology, field-proven in numerous applications, includes a sealed housing on all motors. This housing maneuvers both industry-proven color and radiation-tolerant black-and-white inspection cameras.
Jet Pump Mixer/Diffuser UT
- 12 hours typical inspection time for 20 beams
- Detected all required flaws in EPRI demo block
- Tooling and Techniques seen as INPO “Best Practice”
Core Shroud UT
- Industry’s best two-sided coverage
- Innovative NDE with Phased Array
- Resolver for position encoding to improve data reliability
- Segmented mast facilitates installation / removal without crane support
NDE Training Courses
As a world leader in commercial nuclear services, AREVA requires a robust program of training in order for its leaders and technicians to successfully inspect, repair, and maintain components of power generation facilities worldwide. Our technicians are trained in a variety of nondestructive examination (NDE) disciplines, including dye penetrant, eddy current, magnetic particle, ultrasonic and visual examination. See the course descriptions below.
The AREVA NDE training courses are based on the requirements of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10CFR50.55a), the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, the American Society of Nondestructive Testing ASNT-TC-1A and ANSI/ASNT CP-189 guidelines. Other equally important nuclear industry standards, such as the EPRI Pressurized Water Reactor Steam Generator Examination Guidelines, are implemented as required to fulfill customer requirements.
ECT - Eddy Current Training - 100 Level
Eddy Current Platform Support Technician
This specialized course covers the basic elements of eddy current steam generator platform support to include equipment and platform setup, basic probe driver maintenance, probe changes and support activities for manipulator operation. Students learn inspection activities related to eddy current testing of steam generator tubing and other essential work practices for PWR reactor containment building and radiological environments.
Eddy Current Level I
This is the basic course of study for entry level into the eddy current test method. The course is designed around SNT-TC-1A and CP-189 requirements. Learning objectives include eddy current fundamentals, basic types of eddy current testing, sensing coils and their characteristics, calibration methods and exercises for specific technique applications. The primary emphasis is on the inspection of tubing with internal probes. The course includes 16 classroom hours and 24 practical “hands-on” hours.
Eddy Current Level II
This is an advanced course in the eddy current test method. This course focuses on steam generator and heat exchanger tubing, following SNT-TC-1A and CP-189 requirements. Emphasis is on advanced multi-frequency eddy current techniques with bobbin, rotating and array probes. Basic signal analysis is also covered. The course includes 20 classroom hours and 20 practical “hands-on” hours.
Eddy Current Data Analyst
This advanced course in eddy current signal analysis meets the requirements of ASME Section XI and related industry standards for personnel who analyze data from heat exchanger tubing. The course introduces the student to commonly used inspection techniques, typical damage mechanisms, basic signal analysis and calibration and process channel (mixing) applications. State of the art equipment and analysis software programs are employed. The course is a constant blend of organized instruction and practical applications.
Qualified Data Analyst (QDA)
This advanced course in eddy current signal analysis meets the requirements of EPRI PWR Steam Generator Examination Guidelines and related industry standards for personnel who analyze data from steam generator tubing. The course uses the EPRI supplied QDA training and testing materials. The focus is on damage mechanism specific analysis techniques using actual industry data and qualified analysis techniques. State of the art equipment and analysis software programs are employed. The course is a constant blend of organized instruction and practical applications.
Qualified Data Analyst (QDA) Re-qualification
This course in eddy current signal analysis meets the requirements of EPRI PWR Steam Generator Examination Guidelines for QDA personnel who require re-qualification. The course involves proctoring the written and practical examinations required for re-qualification. The course uses the EPRI supplied QDA training and testing materials. State of the art equipment and analysis software programs are employed. The course is purely practical applications for the purpose of conducting an examination. Instruction for refresher purposes, prior to or during the examination, and additional time required past the allotted 24 hours may involve additional fees.
Eddy Current Level III
This course follows the guidelines established by the American Society of Nondestructive Testing as outlined in SNT-TC-1A and CP-189. The course offers instruction in advanced eddy current theory and applications; applicable materials, products and fabrication technology; basic understanding of other NDE methods; and NDE related codes, standards and specifications. The course is entirely classroom instruction.
Eddy Current Familiarization
(typically three days)
This introductory course covers a broad range of elements related to the acquisition, analysis, management, and relevance of tubular product eddy current data and is intended for non-specialists who would benefit from a general understanding of the theoretical and applied aspects of eddy current inspections. Beginning with an overview of both the scientific basis of the phenomenon of eddy currents as well as the industry codes that govern inspections, the student is then presented with the technology and hardware that is used to record ECT data. A computer is provided to each student for instruction on signal interpretation of both calibration standard and actual in-service tubing data. The course instructor is an experienced ET Level III Examiner who will also utilize specialist speakers to cover topics such as data management and tube integrity engineering. Because class enrollment is not intended to lead directly to industry certification (there are no student examinations), there is flexibility in the presentation of topics, as course content and emphasis may be tailored to the specific needs of the student.
INS - Instructor
This course meets the requirements of ASME Code and CP-189. The course offers instruction in the design, development, implementation and delivery of instructional materials. The course is a blend of organized instruction and practical applications. Students are required to demonstrate comprehension of the material by developing and delivering an appropriate lesson plan at the end of the course.
MTT - Magnetic Particle Testing
Level I Magnetic Particle Testing (MT)
This course covers the theory and application of Magnetic particle testing (MT) for the detection of flaws in ferromagnetic materials. Designed around ANSI/ASNT CP-189 requirements, the student will learn the theory behind magnetic and electromagnetic fields and how these may be used to detect flaws at or near the surface of engineering materials which lend themselves to this examination technique. Selection and use of magnetic phenomena such as direct/indirect magnetization, induction, magnetic hysteresis, skin effects of AC power and rectification of DC power used to detect flaws will be presented along with the selection and care of the appropriate equipment.
Level II Magnetic Particle Testing (MT)
After a short review of the Level I class highlights, the student will be taken to the next level of MT – the how, when and why of flaws found in engineering materials. Students will learn how flaws occur in pipe, tubing and structural components which are made of cast, wrought, forged and welded components. Techniques for detecting flaws will be discussed in detail as well as being demonstrated on mockups containing real flaws. Skills for discriminating between real and “false” indications of flaws will be discussed and demonstrated. Detection and identifying flaws found in the basic steel making processes, those occurring during component processing/fabrication and flaws occurring during the service life of a component will be presented. Flaws that are unique to the different manufacturing processes such as casting, forging, metal working and welding will also be presented and discussed in detail. Another portion of this comprehensive course discusses codes, standards and procedures which require this NDE method to be employed and the interpretation of flaws and how to evaluate their acceptability to the various standards.
NDE for Engineers
NDE for Engineers
NDE for Engineers
This course is designed for anyone who directly or indirectly is affected by NDE. No prior experience is needed in NDE or ASME Codes as the course dissects these Codes for the student.
Students will learn the basic principles of several NDE methods commonly used in the nuclear industry: liquid penetrant, magnetic particle, visual weld inspection, ASME III visual inspections, and ASME XI visual inspections. In addition, the principles of the eddy current, radiography, and ultrasonic examination techniques are covered. In the end, students will spend an afternoon actually performing some of these techniques.
The course provides an overview of why the nuclear industry does what it does in NDE terms. The material covers federal regulation, relevant ASME Section III subsections as well as ASME Section XI. This material is reviewed in detail with students to aid students in determining what NDE is required for various applications. The interrelation of these various codes is also explained in detail.
Practical exercises are used to provide students with the opportunity to consult the various codes and determine, on their own, what NDE methods are most appropriate for the application. Actual situations from AREVA’s business are used to illustrate practical applications in the student's daily work.
While the title states “for engineers,” this class is also beneficial for supervisors and managers of personnel. Past students have included engineers, vice presidents of organizations, foreign authorized nuclear inspectors, and personnel from subcontracted NDE companies.
PTT - Penetrant Testing
Level I Dye Penetrant Testing (PT)
This time proven and easy to perform technique for finding flaws that are open to the surface of materials will be presented starting with its conception and use during the Industrial Revolution. The different applications and techniques covered will include visible dye penetrant which shows flaws as a bright red stain and a fluorescent dye penetrant technique which makes flaws “glow” under the presence of UV or “Black Light.”
Level II Dye Penetrant Testing (PT)
As in the MTT-112 course above, the student will learn the intricacies of evaluating indications of flaws as to classification and identification. Detection and identifying flaws found in the basic steel making processes, those occurring during component processing/fabrication and flaws occurring during the service life of a component will be presented. Flaws that are unique to the different manufacturing processes such as casting, forging, metal working and welding will also be presented and discussed. Another portion of this session discusses codes, standards and procedures which require this NDE method to be employed and the interpretation of flaws and how to evaluate their acceptability to the various standards.
TIE - Conditional Monitoring and Operational Assessment
Condition Monitoring and Operational Assessment
This class is structured to provide a fundamental understanding of how to perform calculations to support condition monitoring and operational assessment evaluations. The approach taken by the instructor is provide an overview of the requirements for structural and leakage integrity of degraded steam generator tubing, statistics, probability, and Monte Carlo simulation. The procedures of the revised EPRI Steam Generator Integrity Assessment Guidelines are described and illustrated by example problems. Impacts of the revised Structural Integrity Performance Criteria, SIPC, and adoption of the 0.95 probability requirement for meeting the SIPC are covered. EPRI Flaw Handbook equations, combined with the application of NDE sizing uncertainties are introduced to develop best estimate structural limits, condition monitoring, operational assessment, and repair structural integrity limits. Additionally, alternative analysis procedures, such as signal amplitude based methods, are presented as potential solutions for more complex degradation mechanisms. AREVA NP's Mathcad CMOA Programs and MultiFram Probabilistic Program are utilized as examples for performing the assessments. There is no examination for students, only example problems. Degradation specific examples can be requested by class participants when registering. The course is 24 classroom hours.
UTT - Ultrasonic Examination Training
Combined Level I Ultrasonic Examination Classroom and Laboratory (UT)
This course uses an innovative approach to presenting the ultrasonic theory and equipment setup and use. Theory and laboratory sessions will be presented as a combined presentation, with actual demonstration of the practical application of theory using UT equipment. AREVA NP has very successfully trained UT students using this approach. It helps keep the students interested by breaking up what can be a very dry presentation with the ability to actually see how the different parameters such as frequency, transducer size and other elements actually affect not only the display on the UT scope screen, but differences in the ability to detect reflectors.
Level I Ultrasonic Examination Laboratory (UT)
This course satisfies the Level I laboratory training requirements of ASME Section XI Paragraph IWA-2300 and Appendix VII Paragraph VII-4220 for personnel wishing to examine nuclear power plant components. The student will be trained in the use of state of the art digitally controlled Ultrasonic Flaw Detectors and the calibration standards, probes, cabling and couplant associated with the method. Training will also be given on flaw detection and discrimination. This is an excellent preparatory course for those seeking manual piping PDI UT qualifications in accordance with ASME Section XI Appendix VIII.
Level I Ultrasonic Examination Classroom (UT)
This course satisfies the Level I classroom training requirements of ASME Section XI Paragraph IWA-2300 and Appendix VII Paragraph VII-4220 for personnel wishing to examine nuclear power plant components. It also satisfies the requirements of ASNT-TC-1A and ASNI/ASNT CP-189. Ultrasonic theory will be presented by PDI-qualified Level III instructors with over 30 years of experience performing ultrasonic examinations in the power generation business with a minimum of 20 years dedicated to the nuclear industry.
Combined Level II Ultrasonic Examination Classroom and Laboratory (UT)
As with the Level I combined course, the combination of classroom and hands-on equipment use will allow students to understand the theory of detection, length sizing and through-wall sizing, while having the opportunity to go to the lab and see what the actual screen presentations are while the theory is fresh in their minds.
Level II Ultrasonic Examination Laboratory (UT)
During this course, particular attention will be given to the detection, length sizing and through-wall sizing of flaws. Advanced techniques developed as a result of the PDI program will be presented and taught by PDI-qualified instructors. This class is an absolute necessity for those wishing to obtain ASME Section XI Appendix VIII certifications.
Level II Ultrasonic Examination Classroom (UT)
After a short review of the Level I course, attention will be turned to where flaws come from, how they can cause a component to fail, and how we can detect them using ultrasonic testing. Examination techniques will be discussed in detail, explaining what techniques are used to find and size particular flaws. Ultrasonic signal evaluation will be covered in detail. Advanced sizing techniques will be presented along with techniques used to discriminate between real flaw signals and signals from component geometry. Included will be a review of ASME Section V and XI UT calibration standards, examination techniques and flaw evaluation.
VTT - Visual Examination Training
Level I Visual Examination (VT)
The universal inspection method - everyone uses visual examination whether it be looking for bruises on bananas in the grocery store or giving that new car the careful look over before you decide to buy. The Visual Examination Level I course will introduce the student to how visual examinations are conducted on industrial components, piping systems and structures for attributes defined in their applicable specifications. Unlike judging the acceptability of things in our personal lives according to taste, the industrial version of visual inspection sets in place controls on how an item is examined as well as establishing criteria against which defined attributes are measured for acceptability. Industry established techniques for performing visual examinations will be presented along with an explanation of how the human eye performs under industrial conditions.
Level II Visual Examination (VT)
Like the magnetic particle and dye penetrant courses above, the Visual Examination Level II course will focus on detecting and identifying flaws found in the basic steel making processes, those occurring during component processing/fabrication, and flaws occurring during the service life of a component. Flaws that are unique to the different manufacturing processes such as casting, forging, metal working and welding will also be presented and discussed. Another portion of this session discusses codes, standards and procedures which require this NDE method to be employed and the interpretation of flaws and how to evaluate their acceptability to the various standards.
ASME Section XI Level II Visual Examination (VT)
This course is targeted for those performing VT-1, VT-2 and VT-3 examinations in nuclear power plants. The training requirements of ASME Section V, Article 9, ASME Section XI Appendix VI, and ANSI/ASNT CP-189 are satisfied in this training. Examination of components, welds, bolting and pressure testing is presented by Level III instructors with over 30 of years experience in the nuclear power business. Students will come away with a thorough understanding of not only the requirements for conducting examinations, but an understanding of how to demonstrate the adequacy of examination procedures to governing authorities such as the NRC and ANII personnel.